Buddhist view of war and peace


When you hear the word war, various thoughts such as fear, dread and so on will come to your mind. War is terrible. Voluntary. is destructive. The civilised world does not condone war of any kind. How to build peace without war is one of the main topics discussed in the world today.

Military figures are seen almost everywhere. In such an environment, let us consider it important to understand the Buddhist view on war and peace. Buddhism excludes war because it destroys life. Buddhism condemns war on the basis of large-scale destruction of human beings, animals and trees. See pages. There is no room for war anywhere in Buddhism, which also focuses on the unethical actions of one person.

Even during the Buddha's time, the Buddha strongly disapproved of killing animals for sacrifices. In the Brahmana Dhammika Sutra mentioned in the Sutta Nipata, 

Napa Drana Vinasena Nassau Hinsati Kenachi Gavo Plaka Samana - Sorana Kumbhaduhana... 

It is said that the cruelty that comes from a heart that persecutes animals is a reward throughout the world.

A number of sutras in the Tripitaka must be consulted in order to understand the Buddhist perspective on war. As two very important sutras, the Pathama Sangama Sutra and the Dhutiya Sangama Sutra are important in the Sangamika Nikaya. Here two wars between King Kosol and King Ajasatta are mentioned. In the first sutra, it is mentioned how King Ajasatta invaded the Kasi land belonging to King Kosol and then how King Kosol retreated and hid.

The monks discussed this incident in the Dam Sabha pavilion and the Buddha preached there, 

Jayang Verang Pasavathy – Dukkham Sethi Parajito Upasantho Sukhang Sethi – Hitwa Jaya Parajyang.....

Victory breeds hatred and the loser cannot lead a happy life. Here these words come out of Buddha's mouth without thinking about King Kosol. Because the horrors of war were well understood. On another occasion, in a war between King Ajasat and King Kosol, it is said that Ajasatta will be freed from King Kosol, who is happy to defeat King Ajasat and take his people into custody.

"That the murderer comes from behind to kill." Victory comes from the back of the loser. What is clear from this word of the Buddha is that there is no such thing as victory or defeat. The seeds of defeat are planted in the conqueror. The seeds of victory are born in the loser.

According to Buddhism, the cause of war is the unsatisfied nature of the human mind. Buddhism has indicated this meaning of "lust". In the Maha Dukkhakanda Sutra, it has been pointed out that in Kama, etc. "Again, monks, because of lust, kings argue with kings. Householders argue with householders. The mother also argues with the son. The son also argues with the mother. The father also argues with the son. The son also argues with the father.The assistant also argues with the assistant. They come to riots and arguments there and attack each other with their hands. They also attack with pieces of stone. They also attack with sticks. They also attack with weapons. There they come to a sorrow equal to death. Monks, this is the beginning of lust.

Man grasps what is in the world. This is identified due to the conflict between the individual and the outside world. Its basis is the image of the name. Thus it is clear that war exists in the personal sphere and nowhere else. In order to create a world without war, the war within the individual must be ended. Almost everyone in the world is quarrelsome. For example, it is like a fish in a shallow pond.Here, as another aspect relevant to our proposition, the Sakka Samutya of the Samyutta Nikaya is also important. In its first two sutras, the god is praised for not taking part in the war despite Shakra's orders. The third formula fits well here.

The first of these is the attitude towards those taken as hostages in war. This is the oldest documented case of hostages. It is recommended in the Sutra that hostages should be treated with kindness. Likewise, the wise should act so as not to provoke fools to war.The sutra implies that the standard of strength, which the educated people think that the real victory is not to wage war and win it, but to avoid war, and not to persecute the weak but to be kind to the weak, is injustice. Here Matali symbolises the group that approves the war and Shakraya represents the party that sees the end of the war.

The Subhashita Jayatu Sutra of the Samyukta Nikaya itself suggests a way to settle the conflict between the two sides, other than war. That is the way of negotiation. The parties agreed to come to a decision as to who should win the discussion. Here it was decided that the ideas expressed by Vepachitti caused discomfort, disharmony and persecution, and therefore Shakraya should have the victory.There is almost nothing that cannot be overcome by Dharma. Most of the points discussed on the subject of war are also contained in the Dhammapada.

Akkochji Man Avadhing Man - Ajiniman Ahosi Me Yetanna Upanaihanti - Verang Tesupa Normiri. 

"He asked and scolded me. I have been beaten, I have lost, the hatred of the angry one is not quenched, the hatred is quenched where there are no such thoughts. It is better to conquer oneself than to kill a thousand and conquer in sixteen wars. 

“Yo Sahassang Sahassena - Sangame Manuse Jithe Ekan wa Jeiya Attnang - Save Sangamajuttamo... (Sahasu Vagga) 

A lot of information related to war can be found in different sections of Dhammapada.

The relationship between the army and the monks was also very cautious. In the precepts for monks, a monk was not allowed to sew while in the army before joining the army. The monk is even forbidden to visit the army. This idea arose because the Jabbagiya monks went to visit the army of King Kosol.

"Yo pana bhikkhu ussumithan senang dassanaya gachjeyang pavithiyang....

Even so, the monk is allowed to visit army soldiers on special occasions. Here it should be understood that the monk society was established for the purpose of planting peace in the society. Military units are formed to protect the country and to wage war in case of need. An army is in a country not to wage war but to protect the country and protect the sovereignty of the country. These two points need to be carefully understood.

In the Yodha Jeeva Sutra of Anguttara Nikaya, there are three qualifications to be a soldier.

1. Distance drilling. 

2. Drilling in the dark.

3. Splitting large trees and rocks.

This is why the warrior is the jewel of the king. His knowledge is needed to act appropriately. What is said about the soldiers who enter the battlefield and become frightened? The Buddha has shown anti-war attitudes in two other ways.

One of them is to leave the title of king and become a monk. The second is the adoption of anti-war strategies. Thus it is clear that information from the anti-war point of view can be found throughout the Buddhist period.

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