Buddhist view of sexuality


The view of the concept of masculinity, sexuality, sexual behavior and related moods, marriage, etc. during the Buddha's time was very deep. Pitaka appears well in the study of literature.


In examining the Buddhist attitude towards femininity and masculinity, it is necessary to inquire about the human social evolution presented in the Agganya Sutra of the Digha sect. As it is shown in it, the masculinity of the female was not evident in the early years when the animal came to live on earth, and it became evident after some time. The subtle body gradually became coarse. Male and female characteristics became distinct.


It is stated in that sutra that with the manifestation of femininity, they looked at each other for a long time and wanted to kiss each other, and while they were looking, lustful thoughts arose and they had intercourse. It has been described how social institutions such as marriage and family life started as intercourse became important.


The Agganya Sutra also describes in detail how the society gradually became more complex, social crises and riots, the formation of the state, the religious corporation, etc. Here, the most important thing is that in the beginning gender discrimination was not known and sexual behavior did not occur and with the recognition of gender discrimination, sexual behavior occurred. This shows that gender discrimination is the closest factor that causes sexual behavior.


It is further stated in the Samyutta Nikaya that both men and women are attracted to each other's sight, sound, smell, and touch. This is important to ask what is the attitude of the otherworldly philosophy of the Buddha towards worldliness and devotional sex. It is said that sexual behavior has been rejected and that it is impossible to live according to Buddhism without doing any study on these issues.


In the Sutra Pitaka and the Vinaya Pitaka as well as in the Jataka stories, the manner in which sexuality and relationship-related moods are formed is very clearly stated. If the limits, criteria and impositions of sexuality change within the respective time-space limits, it should not be recognized as a social decline.


It can be understood by focusing on the subject of the main Buddhist teachings that Buddhism does not completely reject such new trends. But as people become 'Civilised' and 'Cultured', shame and fear become social values. Society then assumes that sexual activity should only be given to the people involved in it.


Then the society assumes that the sex work should be given only to the people involved in it. In the Agganya Sutra we mentioned earlier, sexual behavior is described as 'asaddhamma' or 'non-dharma' to explain the place of that action in the norms that existed until then.


By saying "Kathanhi nama satto sattassa everupang karissathi...", the people who were not involved in the act started to scold, attack and harass the participants of the sexual act. It is also possible that the other group reacted to this behaviour in accordance with traditional ways of respecting social norms or jealous thoughts.


But if various counter-cognitive or good evaluations arise in changes in social norms and values, Buddhism accepts them. What is known as 'Dhamma' at one time may become 'Dhamma' or good at another time. It is not harmful to human existence. Names should be accepted as good. The Chakkavatti Sihanada Sutra explains how moral values ​​transcend the limits of transformation and society then re-enters a sustainable stage.


After the decline of morality, the signs of mother, father, aunt, uncle, son, etc., disappear, and the Buddhas who present facts about a period in which sexuality is given the main place, do not recognize them as positive characteristics. It is true that sexual evaluations must evolve according to human needs. But it is revealed from that sutra that if noble values ​​such as motherhood and fatherhood are covered by lust and lust, the Buddha recognizes it as a cause of degradation.


Postmodern thought also disapproves of stable sexual relations. Buddhism offers a more forward-looking approach to morality. The purpose of imprisonment to suppress human life into a 'moral' framework is unknown in Buddhism. Buddhism wants to keep every relationship within the limits of humanity and give a correct view of life.


There is a strong argument made by postmodern thinkers about sexuality. According to their analysis, the rules and regulations about sexuality, attitudes and many other things have been developed by man as part of his culture. Therefore, they do not accept such a cultural creation as a sacred element that should not be changed. Buddhism also agrees with this fact.


Likewise, according to postmodernists, human sexuality, sexism and gender differences, as well as the political power structure that is connected with it, are not natural and operate centered on sexual symbols. It is cultural. Buddhism does not value man's self-centeredness, authoritarian traits that grow in his personality.


Buddhism is not opposed to deconstructing existing relationships about sex. The Buddhist attitude to impermanence can also be substituted in this translation task. When the feedback relationship is changed, the outcome of any situation necessarily changes. At the time of the Buddha, the arahath society included the four groups of monks, nuns, upasaka and upasikas.


Buddhism recognizes man not as the ruler of the world, but as a being with a unique intelligence and greater potential for perfection. Man is not a separate or external aspect of sex. Buddhism acknowledges the power of sexuality along with certain biological relationships and mental attitudes.


In some traditions of Mahayana Buddhism, such as the Vajrayana and Tantrayana, it is accepted that the transition from sexual intercourse is equal to liberation in certain respects. Likewise, in the Zen tradition, intercourse is recognized as a powerful opportunity for man to be altruistic. The Buddhist interpretation is that man must protect his humanity.


But it does not imply that sex is an inhuman task. When the relationship between the sexes is correct, Buddhism accepts 'Dhammika' or correct sexual harmony. It is also possible that such attitudes were expressed simultaneously with the evaluations that were relative to the culture from which the philosophy originated. The Sutras of 'Itthi Bandhana' and 'Purusha Bandhana' reveal that the physical relationship between a woman and a man is very powerful and emotional.


But in this analysis, female dominance or male dominance is not expressed in any way. It generally states what the nature of the spiritual aspect of humanity or earthly life is. Even from this one explanation, it is clear that Buddhism does not contradict the subject of human sexual acts. The Vinaya Pitaka testifies to the fact that the Buddhist period was relatively uncomplicated compared to today's world, but various methods of sexual prohibition were used.


Parajika Pali is an example of this. Just like the first Parajikapattiya, the first Sanghadisesapattiya is also associated with sexual behavior and its predominance emerges. As monks are a group of people who have entered the path of liberation, they strongly emphasise the existence of 'Brahma Charya'. However, sufficient examples of how the monks performed various sexual activities with ordinary people such as women, men, Pandavas and Ubhato Byanjanakas are evident in the sources mentioned above.


Many methods and postures used by people at that time to get sexual inspiration are also shown there. Vasamaga, pasamaga, muwaga, thigh intercourse, rahasaga or umbilical cord, abdominal knot,  use of hand tricks (Parajika Pali page numbers 93 - 94 - 95 - 69 - 80) etc. are among them. Buddhism advises the exclusion of all forms of sexual activity, as monks are bound to follow the "Brahma Charya" abode.



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